What is SMART Brain?
SMART Brain combines the finest natural ingredients to provide well-rounded brain health benefits to include:
- Overall cognitive function support
- Improved focus, concentration and memory
- Enhanced brain cellular energy to fight mental fatigue and stress
- Support for improved learning and overall health
S-Cell introduces the first in Asia brain health formulation that includes Cognizin®Citicoline, VitaCholine®, Lion’s Mane Extract (5:1), Ginkgo Biloba Extract (50:1), Panax Ginseng Extract (10:1), Ashwagandha Extract, Iodine: Kelp, Albion® Zinc Bisglycinate Chelate, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B2 Riboflavin, Vitamin B6 as PSP, Vitamin B1, Panthotenic Acid (B5)
SMART Brain is specially formulated to provide comprehensive brain health support in one capsule.
- Why SMART Brain?
- How does SMART Brain work?
- Product Benefits
- Suitable For
- Recommended Dosage
- Related Scientific Studies
Why SMART Brain?
SMART Brain ingredients’ support on brain health is backed by science.
Support in protecting brain cellular structure and brain development.
Cognizin® Citicoline provides vital nutrients that help the brain generate electrical impulses, care for healthy brain cells and protect neurons from free radical damage1. Cognizin aids in the synthesis and maintenance of cell membranes1.
Cognizin®Citicoline, is a bioavailable macronutrient which can pass through the blood-brain barrier making it an efficient source of choline. Citicoline increases an important substance in the brain called phosphatidylcholine which helps maintain the integrity of neuronal cell membranes; and increases energy production in the frontal cortex2.
Iodine: Kelp is an important nutrient for growth and development of the brain. Proper supply of iodine leads to better problem-solving abilities and overall cognitive performance, as evidenced by a study published in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition3.
SMART Brain’s ingredients increase brain cellular energy to support activities with high mental demands
Cognizin®Citicoline increases brain energy (ATP) by 14% and speeds up formation of brain membranes by 26% in healthy adults from sixteen healthy men and women who orally self-administered 500mg or 2000mg of Cognizin® Citicoline (Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd., JAPAN) for six weeks4.
Cognizin®Citicoline has been studied and demonstrated to increase brain activity among middle-aged adults and lessen cognitive decline. Cognizin supports the healthy mitochondria activity required for sustained mental effort1.
Ashwagandha Extract has been studied and demonstrated to safely and effectively improve an individual's resistance towards stress and thereby improving quality of life5.
Panax Ginseng Extract in a study involving 30 healthy adults has been demonstrated to help improve performance and subjective feelings of mental fatigue during sustained mental activity6.
Support on improvement of cognitive performance such as concentration, attention and memory
Citicoline given to certain groups of elderly people resulted in improvements in measurements of memory, attention, behavior, reaction time, relational life, independence and cooperation2.
Cognizin®Citicoline a patented CDP-choline has been studied and demonstrated to improve attention in sixty healthy adult women aged 40 – 60 who took CDP-choline for 28 days7.
Citicoline has been studied and demonstrated to improve short and long-term verbal memory in adults aged 50–85 with poor memory after supplementation with 1,000 mg of CDP-choline in three months8.
Citicoline has also been studied and demonstrated to increase both attention and psychomotor speed in adolescent males after 28 days of supplementation9.
VitaCholine® Choline is a patented form of Choline. A study on choline indicates both verbal and visual memory may be improved in patients who require long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN)10.
Choline had been studied in large observational studies involving 1,391 subjects linking dietary choline intake to improved brain function and better memory and mental processing11.
Ginkgo Biloba Extract has been studied on its effect helping treat cerebral insufficiency — a condition characterized by chronically low concentration, confusion, decreased physical performance, fatigue, headaches and mood changes12.
Ashwagandha Extract was studied and demonstrated in an eight-week study of 50 adults taking 300 mg of ashwagandha root extract twice daily to significantly improve general memory, task performance and attention13.
Vitamin B12 supplementation may improve memory, even in the absence of a clinically diagnosed deficiency14.
SMART Brain’s ingredients support on recovery from traumatic brain injury, treatment for ischemic stroke, and memory impairment
Lion’s Mane Extract (5:1) Hericium erinaceus is an edible and medicinal mushroom has been studied to significantly improve mental functioning in older adults with mild cognitive impairment after consuming 3 grams of powdered lion’s mane mushroom daily for four months however these benefits disappeared when supplementation was stopped15.
Ginkgo Biloba Extract has been proven in a 2017 study involving 348 patients to alleviate cognitive and neurological deficits after acute ischemic stroke without increasing the incidence of vascular events16.
SMART Brain’s ingredients may help improve symptoms of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease
Cognizin®Citicoline has showed great efficacy in preventing cognitive decline in elderly patients with Alzheimer’s disease and further cognitive impairment17.
Ginkgo Biloba Extract has been studied on its effect to support Western medicines in helping protect against further cognitive decline and increase brain function for people with Alzheimer’s, dementia or vascular problems caused by cerebral infarction (loss of blood flow to vessels in the brain)18.
Ginkgo Biloba Extract has been studied and demonstrated in a study involving 828 subjects to provide added cognitive benefits in Alzheimer’s Disease patients already under cholinesterase inhibitors treatment19.
Panax Ginseng Extract, a Korean red ginseng (KRG) has been studied and demonstrated in a two-year period study to show cognitive benefits in patients with Alzheimer's disease*37. Moreover, it has been studied and demonstrated to be effective as an adjuvant therapy to conventional anti-dementia medications in patients with Alzheimer's disease20.
Iodine: Kelp, from a seaweeds extract, was shown to protect brain cells from death in cell models of Parkinson’s disease and improved cell survival21.
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin has neuroprotective mechanisms which could help in neurological disorders, Parkinson’s Disease and migraine 22.
SMART Brain’s ingredients may help in mental illness, anxiety, depression, mood disorders and Bipolar condition
VitaCholine® Choline has been studied involving large sample of subjects linking lower blood levels of choline to anxiety but not to depression23.
Choline has also been studied as an indicator for certain mood disorders, and supplementation may be used to treat bipolar disorder24.
Lion’s Mane Extract has studies to support reduce mild symptoms of anxiety and depression with intake of cookies containing Hericium erinaceus25-26.
Ginkgo Biloba Extract has been studied to support elderly patients with anxiety related to cognitive decline27.
Ginkgo Biloba Extra has been studied and demonstrated to be effective in treating antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction28.
Ashwagandha Extract has demonstrated reduction in anxiety in a six-week study of patients with anxiety disorder29.
Vitamin B12 supplementation with antidepressants was shown to help improve mood in people with an existing deficiency30.
SMART Brain’s ingredients may help alleviate premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
Ginkgo Biloba Extract has been studied in 85 subjects and proven to significantly decrease in the overall severity of symptoms and physical and psychologic symptoms of PMS31.
SMART Brain contains natural ingredients which are proven safe and effective
SMART Brain satisfies the stringent requirements established by the EFSA and is manufactured in facilities that meet the highest GMP standards, ensuring its production consistently delivers a high-quality product. It is gluten-free, has no artificial colorings or flavorings, non-GMO, and features 100% veggie capsules.
Cognizin®Citicoline is a naturally occurring nutrient found in the brain. Manufactured by Kyowa Hakko USA. Cognizin® is pure, vegetarian and allergen-free.
VitaCholine® Choline is an organic, water-soluble Choline Bitartrate. It is certified, FDA reviewed structure-functions claims, European Food Safety Authority Article 13 general health claims, certified kosher, halal and is non-GMO.
Lion’s Mane Extract (5:1) Hericium erinaceus is an edible and medicinal mushroom, fungus group which is native to North America, Europe and Asia. It has long history in medicinal use in East Asian as legends claim that taking this Lion’s Mane mushroom can provide “nerves of steel and the memory of a lion.”
Ginkgo Biloba Extract, also known as Maidenhair, is an ancient plant extract used for centuries in China for its various medicinal effect particularly on the brain health.
Ginseng plant is commonly found in Korea, northeastern China, and far eastern Siberia. Panax ginseng contains many active substances called ginsenosides or panaxosides which has beneficial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Ashwagandha Extract also is from Withania somnifera plant, a small shrub with yellow flowers that's native to India and North Africa. It has been used for over 3,000 years to relieve stress, increase energy levels and improve concentration. "Ashwagandha" is Sanskrit for "smell of the horse," which refers to both its unique smell and ability to increase strength.
Iodine: Kelp is from seaweed which is a natural source of iodine.
Albion® Zinc Bisglycinate Chelate is an essential trace element required for optimal brain health and cognition is integral to the synthesis of proteins, the regulation of signaling cascades, gene transcription and neurotransmitter transport32.
Vitamin B12 Methylcobalamin can be found naturally in foods such as clams, mollusks, and liver 33.
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin is found naturally in some foods34.
Vitamin B6 as PSP is a water-soluble Vitamin B that is naturally present in many foods35.
Vitamin B1 Thiamine an essential nutrient responsible for producing the energy36.
Panthotenic Acid (B5) is an essential nutrient that is naturally present in some foods37.
SMART Brain is convenient and cost effective
SMART Brain combines potent ingredients plus supporting nutrients which could be taken in one capsule. SMART Brain may provide synergistic effects on brain health and overall physical health.
SMART Brain boasts of two potent choline nutrient sources Cognizin®Citicoline and VitaCholine®. SMART Brain’s key ingredients boost cellular pathways needed to support structural integrity of cell membranes, produce compound that acts as cell messengers, making a substance required for removing cholesterol from liver and help with a process that's important for DNA synthesis.
Choline is needed for neurotransmitter synthesis (acetylcholine), cell-membrane signaling (phospholipids), lipid transport (lipoproteins), and methyl-group metabolism (homocysteine reduction)38.
Choline as a brain nutrient
Choline is an essential nutrient. it is important for the healthy structure and function of the human body, acting as a biochemical building block, an agent of cell-to-cell communication and transportation, and part of a regulatory system for gene expression.
Choline plays a key role in accelerating the synthesis and release of acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter involved in memory storage, muscle control, and many other functions (Cohen and Wurtman, 1975; Haubrich et al., 1974; Wecker, 1986)1-2.
Acetylcholine as cell messenger
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter or “chemical messengers” released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells involved in central, peripheral, autonomic and somatic nervous systems. In the central nervous system (CNS) plays a role in controlling motivation, arousal and attention. It has a role also in brain functions which helps people sustain focus, have good sleep quality, and maintain brain’s reward system. Shortage of acetylcholine in the brain, has been associated with the onset of Alzheimer's disease. An imbalance between acetylcholine and dopamine could result to shaky and uneven movements which is a hallmark of Parkinson’s disease39-41.
Choline in cell-membrane signaling (phospholipids) and lipid transport (lipoproteins)
Choline is essential in making fats which is needed to support the structure of cell membranes. Choline is essential for making a substance required for removing cholesterol from the liver38.
Choline in methyl-group metabolism (homocysteine reduction)
Homocysteine is an amino acid when homocysteine isn’t properly metabolized homocysteine is inflammatory and neurotoxic, and increases oxidative stress and free radical damage in the brain by reducing levels of cysteine and glutathione38.
Lion’s mane mushrooms contain compounds hericenones and erinacines that stimulate the nerve growth factor (NGF) of brain cells and protect them from damage caused by Alzheimer’s disease42.
Ginkgo Biloba is an ancient Chinese tree which is a traditional herb used for memory, depression, tinnitus and confusion16. Ginkgolide B, an herbal constituent extract of Ginkgo Biloba is a natural anti platelet activating factor (PAF) which a pro inflammatory and nociceptive agent released during inflammatory process. Moreover, Ginkgolide B modulates the action of glutamate acid, the main excitatory neurotransmitter of CNS43.
Ashwagandha Extract is known as an adaptogen which helps the body adapt to stressors and has an anxiolytic effect. Ashwagandha contains chemicals that might help calm the brain, reduce swelling (inflammation), lower blood pressure, and alter the immune system.
Iodine: Kelp influences the production of thyroid stimulating hormones. Normal thyroid function means neuro transmitter production functions to provide the brain abundant supplies of dopamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine, which keep the body happy, motivated, and in a positive mood.
Albion® Zinc Bisglycinate is involved in DNA repair and synthesis and methylation. Zinc increases serotonin uptake in select brain regions which increases the efficacy of antidepressants.
Vitamin B12 is needed to produce serotonin, a chemical responsible for regulating mood33.
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin is a B Vitamin which is a precursor component in the conversion of glutathione, carriers in cellular energy production and many metabolic pathways34.
Vitamin B6 in coenzyme forms performs a wide variety of functions in the body and is extremely versatile, with involvement in more than 100 enzyme reactions, mostly concerned with protein metabolism35.
Vitamin B1 is needed by the body to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is a molecule that transports energy within cells. It is important for the synthesis of acetylcholine, which is critical in preventing memory loss and nerve inflammation36.
Panthotenic Acid (B5) is necessary for making blood cells, and it helps convert the food into energy37.
Support in maintaining brain cellular energy to fight mental stress and improve memory and concentration
- Provides the brain vital nutrients like choline and iodine to help develop and maintain brain cellular structure*
- Increases brain cellular energy to fight stress and support activities with high mental demands*
- Support in improving memory, concentration and attention*
Support in protecting the brain from neurological disorders and prevention of cognitive decline
- Helps the brain recover from the trauma caused by brain injury such as ischemic stroke*
- Protects the brain from further damage of neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s Disease*
- Helps improve symptoms of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease and prevent further cognitive impairment*
- Reduces symptoms of mood disorders, anxiety and depression, bipolar*
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
VitaCholine® (Choline Bitartrate) is an organic, water-soluble compound. Choline is an essential brain nutrient which acts as a chemical “building block”, an agent of cell-to-cell communication and transportation, and part of a regulatory system for your genes.
Cognizin®Citicoline is a potent brain-health nutrient, which is a naturally occurring nutrient found in the brain.
Lion’s Mane Extract (5:1) is an edible and medicinal mushroom in the tooth fungus group. Native to North America, Europe and Asia.
Ginkgo Biloba Extract (50:1) is an ancient Chinese tree which is a traditional herb used for memory, depression, tinnitus and confusion
Panax Ginseng Extract (10:1) a Ginseng plant that commonly found in Korea, northeastern China, and far eastern Siberia
Ashwagandha Extract is a small shrub with yellow flowers that's native to India and North Africa. It has been used for over 3,000 years to relieve stress, increase energy levels and improve concentration
Iodine: Kelp is a natural source of iodine.
Albion® Zinc Bisglycinate Chelate is an essential trace element required for optimal brain health and cognition. Chelated Zinc is easily absorbable
Vitamin B12 helps improve memory, even in the absence of a clinically diagnosed deficiency.
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) has neuroprotective mechanisms which could help in neurological disorders, Parkinson’s Disease and migraine.
Vitamin B6 as PSP is a water-soluble Vitamin B that is naturally present in many foods.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) is an essential nutrient responsible for producing the energy.
Panthotenic Acid (B5) is necessary for making blood cells, and it helps convert the food into energy.
- People needing focus and concentration in their work
- People who needs support to relieve stress and anxiety
- People with declining cognitive function like loss of memory and brain fatigue
- Elderly patients suffering from dementia and Alzheimer’s disease
- People who needs support in improving learning performance and in maintaining mental ability to take battery of examinations
- 2 capsules per day with a glass of water in the morning before breakfast.
- 60 capsules per bottle, providing consumption for 30 days.
- Suitable for aged 18 or above people.
Keep out of the reach of children. This product is for adult use only. When taking any dietary supplement, please consult a doctor or a qualified healthcare professional, before using. It is not intended for use by children, pregnant women, or nursing mothers.
Related Scientific Studies
Babb SM et al. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002; 161: 248–54. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12021827]
Rosie C GordonMeredith C Rose Sheila A Skeaff Andrew R GrayKirstie MD Morgan Ted Ruffman. Iodine supplementation improves cognition in mildly iodine-deficient children. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 90, Issue 5, 1 November 2009, Pages 1264–1271 [https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/90/5/1264/4598118]
Silveri MM et al. Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. NMR Biomed. 2008; 21(10):1066-75. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18816480]
Chandrasekhar K1, Kapoor J, Anishetty S. A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults. Indian J Psychol Med. 2012 Jul;34(3):255-62. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23439798]
Reay JL1, Kennedy DO, Scholey AB.Single doses of Panax ginseng (G115) reduce blood glucose levels and improve cognitive performance during sustained mental activity. J Psychopharmacol.2005 Jul;19(4):357-65.[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15982990]
Erin McGlade, Allison Locatelli, Julia Hardy, Toshikazu Kamiya, Masahiko Morita, Koji Morishita, Yoichiro Sugimura, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd. Improved Attentional Performance Following Citicoline Administration in Healthy Adult Women. The Scientific Research. 3 No.6, June 2012 [https://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=19921]
Yurgelun-Todd D et al. The Effect of Citicoline Supplementation on Motor Speed and Attention in Adolescent Males. Journal of Attention Disorders. 2015; 1557-1246. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26179181]
Buchman AL, Sohel M, Brown M, Jenden DJ, Ahn C, Roch M et al. Verbal and visual memory improve after choline supplementation in long-term parenteral nutrition. JPEN 2001;25(1):30-5. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11190987]
Poly C1, Massaro JM, Seshadri S, Wolf PA, Cho E, Krall E, Jacques PF, Au R. The relation of dietary choline to cognitive performance and white-matter hyperintensity in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Am J Clin Nutr.2011 Dec;94(6):1584-91. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22071706]
J Kleijnenand P Knipschild. Ginkgo biloba for cerebral insufficiency. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1992 Oct; 34(4): 352–358. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1381419/]
Choudhary D1, Bhattacharyya S2, Bose S2. Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) Root Extract in Improving Memory and Cognitive Functions. J Diet Suppl.2017 Nov 2;14(6):599-612. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28471731]
Köbe T1, Witte AV2, Schnelle A1, Grittner U3, Tesky VA4, Pantel J4, Schuchardt JP5, Hahn A5, Bohlken J6, Rujescu D7, Flöel A8. Vitamin B-12 concentration, memory performance, and hippocampal structure in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Am J Clin Nutr.2016 Apr;103(4):1045-54 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912492/]
Mori K1, Inatomi S, Ouchi K, Azumi Y, Tuchida T. Improving effects of the mushroom Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) on mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res.2009 Mar;23(3):367-72. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18844328]
Shanshan Li et al. Ginkgo biloba extract improved cognitive and neurological functions of acute ischemic stroke: a randomised controlled trial [https://svn.bmj.com/content/2/4/189]
Conant R1, Schauss AG. Therapeutic applications of citicoline for stroke and cognitive dysfunction in the elderly: a review of the literature. Altern Med Rev.2004 Mar;9(1):17-31. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15005642]
Zhang SJ1, Xue ZY. Effect of Western medicine therapy assisted by Ginkgo biloba tablet on vascular cognitive impairment of none dementia. Asian Pac J Trop Med.2012 Aug;5(8):661-4. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22840457]
Canevelli M1, Adali N2, Kelaiditi E3, Cantet C4, Ousset PJ3, Cesari M4; ICTUS/DSA Group. Effects of Gingko biloba supplementation in Alzheimer's disease patients receiving cholinesterase inhibitors: data from the ICTUS study. 2014 May 15;21(6):888-92. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24548724]
Heo JH1, Lee ST, Chu K, Oh MJ, Park HJ, Shim JY, Kim M. An open-label trial of Korean red ginseng as an adjuvant treatment for cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Eur J Neurol.2008 Aug;15(8):865-8. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18684311]
Joana Silva,1,2Celso Alves,1 Susete Pinteus,1 Susana Mendes,1 and Rui Pedrosa Neuroprotective effects of seaweeds against 6-hydroxidopamine-induced cell death on an in vitro human neuroblastoma model. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018; 18: 58. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5813419/]
Eyad T. Marashly1,*and Saeed A. Bohlega1 Riboflavin Has Neuroprotective Potential: Focus on Parkinson’s Disease and Migraine. Published online 2017 Jul 20 [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5517396/]
Bjelland I1, Tell GS, Vollset SE, Konstantinova S, Ueland PM. Choline in anxiety and depression: the Hordaland Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr.2009 Oct;90(4):1056-60. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19656836]
Shi XF1, Forrest LN2, Kuykendall MD2, Prescot AP3, Sung YH4, Huber RS2, Hellem TL2, Jeong EK3, Renshaw PF5, Kondo DG Anterior cingulate cortex choline levels in female adolescents with unipolar versus bipolar depression: a potential new tool for diagnosis. J Affect Disord.2014;167:25-9. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25082110]
Nagano M1, Shimizu K, Kondo R, Hayashi C, Sato D, Kitagawa K, Ohnuki K. Reduction of depression and anxiety by 4 weeks Hericium erinaceus intake. Biomed Res.2010 Aug;31(4):231-7. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20834180]
Woelk H1, Arnoldt KH, Kieser M, Hoerr R. Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in generalized anxiety disorder and adjustment disorder with anxious mood: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Psychiatr Res.2007 Sep;41(6):472-80. Epub 2006 Jun 30. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16808927]
Ozgoli G1, Selselei EA, Mojab F, Majd HA. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba L. in treatment of premenstrual syndrome. J Altern Complement Med.2009 Aug;15(8):845-51. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19678774]
Andrade C1, Aswath A, Chaturvedi SK, Srinivasa M, Raguram R. A double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the anxiolytic efficacy ff an ethanolic extract of withania somnifera. Indian J Psychiatry.2000 Jul;42(3):295-301. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21407960]
Ehsan Ullah Syed,2Mohammad Wasay,1,* and Safia Awan1,*Vitamin B12 Supplementation in Treating Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Open Neurol J. 2013; 7: 44–48. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24339839]
Vitamin B12 [https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB12-Consumer/]
Pantothenic Acid [https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/PantothenicAcid-HealthProfessional/]
Steven H. Zeisel, M.D., Ph.D. and Kerry-Ann da Costa, Ph.D. Choline: An Essential Nutrient for Public Health. Nutr Rev. 2009 Nov; 67(11): 615–623. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2782876/]
Secades JJ, Lorenzo JL. Meth Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2006; 27(Suppl B): 1–56. [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6629277_Citicoline_Pharmacological_and_clinical_review_2006_update]
Steven H.Zeisel, Choline: Human Requirements and Effects on Human Performance. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK209047/]
Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline National Academy of Sciences [http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6015.html]; [https://www.nal.usda.gov/sites/default/files/fnic_uploads//390-422_150.pdf]
Lai PL1, Naidu M, Sabaratnam V, Wong KH, David RP, Kuppusamy UR, Abdullah N, Malek SN. Neurotrophic properties of the Lion's mane medicinal mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) from Malaysia. Int J Med Mushrooms.2013;15(6):539-54. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24266378]